Learning Center

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Writing is an acquired skill. It has to be nurtured and improved with time.

Please take your time to learn how to correctly approach different writing scenarios.

  1. Academic writing has to be precise and clear.
    1. Scholarly writers must focus on academic expression to ensure that they clearly communicate their ideas. It is important to write precisely and clearly because if readers must reread parts of your writing to understand it, they might not want to keep reading. Some writing habits can detract from a writer’s ability to communicate ideas clearly.

Below are guidelines, templates, and samples

  1. Guide on how to write and format an annotated bibliography Annotatedbibliography
  2. Sample Undergraduate and Masters APA 7 paper APA.UOPX.SamplePaper.UndergradandMasters
  3. Sample Powerpoint and what to be keen on  SamplePowerPoint
  4. Sample analysis paper (MUST READ) WritingWizard_AnalysisEssay
  5. Guide on how to write and format an Abstract Abstract
  6. Sample Undergraduate and Masters MLA PAPER  MLA Sample Paper
  7. Guide on how to write and format a Summary Sample Summary
  8. Guide on how to write and format an outline SampleOutlineV2
  9. Guide on how to write and format a Business Memo SampleBusinessMemo
  10. Guide on how to write and format a Proposal SampleProposal

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[av_content_slide title=’STYLE AND STRUCTURE’ link=’page,136′ linktarget=’_blank’]

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Academic writing style requires following certain rules. The writers should not use idioms and phrasal verbs, deceitful language, euphemisms, group-specific jargon, biased and stereotypical language. Notably, it is very important to use language that fits your audience and matches your purpose. Here is the interesting and credible source with an overview of the appropriate language for essays:


Additionally, if not required otherwise, American English is preferable. There is a comprehensive list of American vs British English spelling that might be interesting and helpful when hesitating which is the appropriate choice for the essays:


Also, you should maintain inclusive writing in your essays. “Man” and words ending in “-man” are the most commonly used gendered nouns in English. These words should be replaced with more neutral language. To avoid gender-biased language, when referring to an individual, do not use ‘he’, replace it with ‘he or she’ or ‘they’. Source:


Unless the type of assignment requires otherwise, avoid using personal pronouns such as I, we, youand remain impersonal.

Avoid using interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory sentences. Do not use incomplete sentences (those that do not contain a subject or a predicate).

Do not use contractions in academic writing (don’t, can’t, I’m, and so on).

Concise, Clear, and Precise Writing

To convey the intended meaning of an academic essay to its readers, the writing should

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Writing from Scratch the writers complete the entire paper from the very beginning. They do their own research, analysis, description or any other work that is required according to the instructions provided.

Editing the writers proofread the work and change the content (up to 30% of it). Changes to the content include adding the necessary information to the paper and deleting the irrelevant details.

PowerPoint Presentation the writers put the main information according to the requirements provided on the slides. The tables/graphs/pictures/any other visual elements should be present on the slides. Only 20% of the info on the slides can be revealed in the text form (up to 50 words per slide). The explanations to the bulleted info/tables/graphs/pictures/any other visual elements should be included in the presenter notes/speaker notes below the slides (up to 100 words).

Online Assignments the writer’s complete online assignments such as multiple-choice questions, open-response questions. In case the instructions state that the online assignment is a quiz or it has a limited time frame for completion, the writer must inform the Support Representative about the situation immediately. After that, the case will be checked by the Support Team, and the final decision on it will be presented to the writer.

Paraphrasing is the expression of the meaning of something written or spoken using different words, especially to achieve greater clarity. Paraphrased parts may be considered as plagiarized if not cited accordingly. When you paraphrase someone’s ideas, you should not just change the words with their synonyms. You should express the same idea but in other words, which means change structure, organization, and wording. Always cite information that has been paraphrased. Therefore, it is crucially important to follow the guidelines of in-text citation formatting while explaining someone’s ideas presented in researches, articles, and other types of research works.

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  1. Essay a piece of writing that gives the author’s own argument. The logical progression and organizational structure of an essay can take many forms. Understanding how the movement of thought is managed through an essay has a profound impact on its overall cogency and ability to impress. A number of alternative logical structures for essays have been visualized as diagrams, making them easy to implement or adapt in the construction of an argument.
  2. Cause and Effect Essay the defining features of a “cause and effect” essay are causal chains that connect from a cause to an effect, careful language, and chronological or emphatic order.
  3. Classification and Division Essay classification is the categorization of objects into a larger whole, while division is the breaking of a larger whole into smaller parts.
  4. Compare and Contrast Essay compare and contrast essays are characterized by a basis for comparison, points of comparison, and analogies. It is grouped by the object (chunking) or by point (sequential). The comparison highlights the similarities between two or more similar objects while contrasting highlights the differences between two or more objects. When writing a compare/contrast essay, writers need to determine their purpose, consider their audience, consider the basis and points of comparison, consider their thesis statement, arrange and develop the comparison, and reach a conclusion. Compare and contrast is arranged emphatically.
  5. Descriptive Essay descriptive writing which is characterized by sensory details, which appeal to the physical senses, and details that appeal to a reader’s emotional, physical, or intellectual sensibilities. Determining the purpose, considering the audience, creating a dominant impression, using descriptive language, and organizing the description are the rhetorical choices to consider when using a description. A description is usually arranged spatially but can also be chronological or emphatic. The focus of a description is the scene.
  6. Dialectic Essay it is the dialectic form of the essay, which is commonly used in philosophy. The writer makes a thesis and argument, then objects to their own argument (with a counterargument), but then counters the counterargument with a final and novel argument. This form benefits from presenting a broader perspective while countering a possible flaw that some may present. This type is sometimes called an ethics paper.